als, what part of the country are you in? Carolinas? (Be as specific as you're comfortable with, and maybe we can do some poking around for local reports for you.) (I've read that Verizon towers are down all around the Florida panhandle, for example-- so no verizon network phone is likely to have reliable data connections regardless of provider......I suspect that the blocked data issue may be Verizon-specific, or perhaps all-Verizon-MVNO-specific, and not just Tracfone-specific)
Is your current Tracfone on Verizon? (I don't remember, either.) If so, do you have intermittent access to WiFi?
If yes to both of those, I think Google Voice is worth a shot. Share the GV # with work and friends, and ask them to change your phone # in their contact list to that #. (Maybe try with one good friend first, as a test).
If your current phone has semi-reliable voice/sms, set up GV to forward voice, text/mms to your carrier #. You'll get these as soon as they come in. If you have a cellular connection, but no data, you'll be able to send sms via your carrier #, but won't be able to send via the GV # without a data connection. When you get around WiFi & connect to it, GV should download any waiting mms into the GV messaging app, where you can read it. (Even if forwarding to the carrier messaging app doesn't work for mms.) You'll have to check email manually when around WiFi.
Voicemail-- good question. If the above is workable, voicemail left on the VZW voicemail would be accessible anywhere you have cellular voice service. You can set up GV to transcribe voicemail and send it as a text to the GV app, but you would only see it when you can get a data connection, either from WiFi or cellular.
As it appears Tracfone is blocking data locally, the only way to confirm that another MVNO is not blocking data is from reports of local users........
If you already have a Google Voice #, you're part way there. If you don't, a new number is provided free. If you like the setup, you can later port your existing number into GV for $20-- but I wouldn't rush to do that. You'll need to find WiFi to download the GV app on your phone. You won't need Hangouts or hangouts dialer to try this. (The only reason I can see to go the Hangouts route is if you have regular and reliable WiFi access, but no cellular voice connectivity.)
Oh, darn-- another possible major stumbling block. Do you have cellular data access at all? GV mostly requires a data connection to place calls or send texts , which might be an issue for you if ALL cellular data connections are blocked (rather than just downloads and mms, as you've mentioned). This would require another set of awkward workarounds...... We can follow up on how that would work if you don't have a cellular data connection at all